What are the types of textile printing?

Date:Dec 18, 2020

1. Classification according to printing process:

1. Direct printing (Over print, Wet print)

Direct printing is a kind of printing directly on white fabric or on pre-dyed fabric. The latter is called overprinting (also called dyeing printing), of course, the color of the printed pattern is much darker than the dyed background. About 80% of printed fabrics on the market use direct printing. (Direct printing here generally refers to dye printing, which is used to distinguish it from the pigment printing below)


Question: How to distinguish white printing and dye printing?

If the front and back of the fabric are the same in depth (due to piece dyeing), and the printed pattern is much darker than the background, then this is an overprint fabric, otherwise it is a white printing.


2. Discharge Print

Use dyes that are not resistant to discharge agents to dye the base color. After drying, use a color dye printing paste that contains discharge agents or at the same time. In post-processing, the ground color dyes in the printing area are destroyed and faded. The white pattern formed on the colored ground (called white discharge printing) or the colored pattern formed by dyeing with color dyes (called color discharge printing). Also known as white or seba.

Compared with direct printing, the production cost of discharging fabrics is very high, and the use of reducing agents must be carefully and accurately controlled.


Question: How to distinguish whether the fabric is discharge printing?

If the background color of the front and back of the fabric is the same (because it is piece dyed), and the pattern is white or a color different from the background color, and the background color is relatively dark, it can be confirmed that it is a discharge printed fabric.

Careful inspection of the reverse side of the pattern will reveal traces of the original background color (the reason for this phenomenon is that the dye-damaging chemicals cannot fully penetrate the reverse side of the fabric).


3. Anti-dye printing

Printed on white fabrics can prevent or prevent dyes from penetrating into the fabric or wax-like resin, the purpose is to dye the base color to bring out the white pattern. Note that the result is the same as the discharge printing fabric, but the method to achieve this result is the opposite of discharge printing.

The application of anti-dye printing method is not universal, and it is generally used when the background color cannot be discharged. Compared with the basis of large-scale production, most of the anti-dye printing is achieved through methods such as handicraft or manual printing (such as wax anti-printing).

Because discharge printing and anti-dye printing produce the same printing effect, they are often not distinguished by visual observation.


4. Burn out print/Reduce print (Burn out print)

Burnt-out printing refers to the chemical substances that can destroy the fiber structure printed on the pattern. Therefore, holes will be formed in the contact between the chemical and the fabric. The edges of the holes in burnt-out prints are always worn prematurely, so this fabric has poor durability.

Another type of burnt-out printing is that the fabric is made of blended yarn, core yarn, or interwoven fabric of two or more fibers. Chemicals can destroy one fiber (cellulose), leaving the others undamaged. Fiber. This printing method can print many special and interesting printed fabrics.


5. Shrink printing/foam printing

The printing method is used to locally apply chemicals that can swell or shrink the fibers on the fabric, and through appropriate treatment, the fibers in the printed part and the non-printed part will have a difference in expansion or contraction, so as to obtain a product with regular uneven surface patterns. Such as cotton printed seersucker with caustic soda as bulking agent. Also called bump printing.

The foaming temperature is generally 110C, the time is 30 seconds, and the 80-100 mesh screen is used for printing.


6. Pigment Print

Since the coating is a water-insoluble coloring substance and has no affinity for fibers, its coloring must be achieved by coating with a film-forming polymer compound (adhesive) and adhesion to the fiber.

Pigment printing can be used for the processing of any fiber textiles, and it is more advantageous in the printing of blended and interwoven fabrics. It has simple process, wide color spectrum, clear flower contour, but it has poor hand feeling and low rubbing fastness.

Pigment printing is direct printing with paint. This process is usually called dry printing to distinguish it from wet printing (or dye printing).

Their light fastness and dry-cleaning fastness are good or even excellent, so they are widely used in decorative fabrics, curtain fabrics and clothing fabrics that require dry cleaning.


Question: How to distinguish whether the fabric is pigment printing?

Pigment printing area feels slightly harder than unprinted area, maybe a little thicker, especially for darker pigment printing, the difference is obvious.


2. Classification according to printing machinery:

1. Manual screen printing

Manual screen printing is commercialized on the long platen (platen is up to 60 yards). The printed cloth rolls are spread smoothly on the platen, and the surface of the platen is pre-coated with a small amount of sticky substance. Then the printing worker moves the screen frame by hand continuously along the entire platen, printing one frame at a time until the fabric is completely printed. Each screen frame corresponds to a printing color.

The production speed of this method is 50-90 yards per hour, and commercial manual screen printing is also widely used to print tailored garment pieces.

Hand screen printing is also used to print limited, highly fashionable women's clothing and print small batches of products for market exploration.


2.Flat Print, Screen Print

The printing mold is a polyester or nylon screen (pattern) fixed on a square frame and has a hollow pattern. The pattern on the pattern can penetrate the color paste, and the non-patterned place is closed with a polymer film. When printing, the pattern is pressed tightly on the fabric, the color paste is filled on the pattern, and the squeegee is used to reciprocate the pressure to make the color paste reach the surface of the fabric through the pattern.

The flat screen printing process is an intermittent rather than a continuous process, so the production speed is not as fast as the rotary screen.

The production speed is about 500 yards per hour.

3. Rotary Print

The printing mold is a cylindrical nickel-skin screen with a hollow pattern, which is installed in a certain order above the circulating rubber guide belt and can rotate synchronously with the guide belt. When printing, the color paste is input into the net and stored at the bottom of the net. When the rotary net rotates with the guide belt, the scraper pressed against the bottom of the net and the flower net are relatively scraped, and the color paste reaches the surface of the fabric through the patterns on the net.

Rotary screen printing is a continuous process with high production efficiency.

The rotary screen printing process is a continuous process, and the printed fabric is conveyed under the continuously moving rotary screen through a wide rubber belt. Among screen printing, rotary screen printing has the fastest production speed, which is greater than 3,500 yards per hour.

Rotary screen making process: inspection and preparation of black and white drafts---rotating screen selection---rotating screen cleaning---applying photosensitive glue---exposure---development---baking---adhesive bulkhead ---Check for use


Supplementary knowledge:

There are three methods to realize screen printing, and the principle of each method is basically the same:

The first is manual screen printing, which was very common in the 1920s and is still widely used today. Until the mid-1950s, before modern technology gave this process automation means, manual screen printing was the only screen printing method.

The second method is called automatic screen printing (also called flat screen printing and automatic flat screen printing). In the mid-1960s, there was further development. The shape of the screen changed from a manual and automatic flat screen to a round screen.

The third method is called circular screen printing or rotary screen printing. Currently, the most widely used screen printing methods are rotary screen printing and flat screen printing.


4. Roller printing

Cylinder printing is like newspaper printing. It is a high-speed process that can produce more than 6000 yards of printed fabric per hour. This method is also called mechanical printing. The copper cylinder can be engraved with very delicate fine lines that are closely arranged, so that very fine and soft patterns can be printed.

If the batches for producing each pattern are not very large, this method is not economical.

Cylinder printing is the least used mass printing production method. Because the current fashion is getting faster and faster, mass orders are getting less and less, so the output of cylinder printing continues to decline every year.

Cylinder printing is often used for printing with very fine line patterns such as paisley tweed printing and the main printing patterns that are printed in large numbers in many seasons.


5. Thermal transfer printing (Tropical Print)

First, use disperse dyes and printing inks to print patterns on the paper, and then store the printed paper (also called transfer paper). When the fabric is printed, the heat transfer printing machine is used to make the transfer paper and the unprinted face to face. Together, they pass through the machine at about 210°C (400T). Under such high temperatures, the dye on the transfer paper sublimates and transfers to the fabric, completing the printing process without further processing. The process is relatively simple.

Disperse dyes are the only dyes that can be sublimated. In a sense, they are the only dyes that can be used for thermal transfer printing. Therefore, this process can only be used on fabrics composed of fibers that have affinity for this type of dye, including acetate fibers and acrylic. Nitrile fiber, polyamide fiber (nylon) and polyester fiber.

Thermal transfer printing can be used to print sanctions, in which case specially designed patterns should be used. Thermal transfer printing, as a complete fabric printing method, stands out from the printing process. Therefore, it eliminates the need for large and expensive dryers, steaming machines, washing machines and stenters.

The production speed of continuous thermal transfer printing is about 250 yards per hour.

However, since the temperature and other process parameters have a greater impact on the final color during the heat transfer process, this method cannot be used if the requirements for color light are very strict.

6. Cold transfer printing:

""Cold transfer printing" was originally a technology developed specifically for transfer printing on cotton fabrics. Because it can be transferred at room temperature, it is called cold transfer printing. In 1984, Dansk of Denmark began research and then cooperated with other companies. , Jointly developed the reactive dye transfer printing technology for all cotton. In the 1990s, Shanghai Tansk was established, and the cold transfer printing process appeared in China.

7. Inkjet printing (Digital Print)

Inkjet printing is to spray small droplets of dye and stay on the precise position of the fabric. The nozzle and pattern formation used to spray the dye solution can be controlled by a computer, and complex patterns and precise pattern circulation can be obtained.

Inkjet printing eliminates the delay and cost increase caused by engraving rollers and making screens. This is a competitive advantage in the fast-changing textile market. The jet printing system is flexible and fast, and can quickly change from one pattern to another.

8. Flocking

Flocking printing is a printing method in which the fiber fluff (about 1/10-1/4 inch) called fiber short fleece is adhered to the surface of the fabric according to a specific pattern. The process is divided into two stages. First, use an adhesive instead of dye or paint to print a pattern on the fabric, and then bond the fiber flock to the fabric. The fiber flock will only be fixed to the previously applied adhesive. Location. There are two ways to adhere the fiber flock to the surface of the fabric: mechanical flocking and electrostatic flocking.

The fibers used for electrostatic flocking include all fibers used in actual production, of which viscose fiber and nylon are the most common. In most cases, the short-staple fiber is dyed before being transplanted onto the fabric.

The resistance of flocked fabrics to dry cleaning and/or washing depends on the nature of the adhesive.

The appearance of flocking fabric can be suede or velvet, or even plush.


9. Warp Yarn Printing/Beam Print

Warp yarn printing refers to printing the warp yarns of the fabric before weaving, and then weaving the fabric with plain weft yarns (usually white), but sometimes the color of the weft yarns is very different from the color of the printed warp yarns. As a result, soft shading and even fuzzy pattern effects can be obtained on the fabric.

Other printing methods that are rarely used in textile production include: wood template printing, wax printing (that is, wax proof) printing, yarn tie-dyeing cloth

3. Other printing methods:

1. Double-sided printing

Double-sided printing is to print on both sides of the fabric to obtain a fabric with a double-sided effect, which looks similar to packaging fabrics with coordinated patterns printed on both sides. The end use is limited to double-sided sheets, tablecloths, liningless or double-sided jackets and shirts.

2. Through printing

For light fabrics, such as cotton, silk and blended knitted fabrics, sometimes the double-sided printing effect is required for part of which needs to be turned out at the cuffs or collars. The printing paste must have good vertical permeability and horizontal impermeability. In this way, a special high-performance discharge printing paste is necessary.

3. Pearlescent and luminous printing

Pearlescent can be divided into natural and artificial, and artificial pearlescent can be extracted from fish scales. Pearlescent does not require light source excitation, acid and alkali resistance, and high temperature resistance. Pearlescent printing shows pearl-like soft brilliance, grace and luxury, with excellent hand feeling and fastness. Pearlescent paste is suitable for printing on various fibers. It can be used alone or mixed with paint to produce colored pearlescent. In the printing process, it is generally better to use a 60-80 mesh screen. Luminescent printing mainly uses luminescent crystal paste to print on the surface of the fabric, and the luminescent paste is fixed on the fabric through pre-baking and melting. Mainly used in the elastic interwoven products of polyamide and spandex.

4. Luminous printing

Luminous powder is a kind of rare earth metal. It is made into powder with a fineness of about 1μM. The luminous powder is printed on the fabric by the pigment printing method to form a pattern. After passing a certain amount of light, the afterglow time of the flower pattern can reach 8-12 hours, with good luminous effect and excellent hand feeling and fastness. But it is limited to printing on light and medium colors.

5. Capsule printing

The microcapsule is composed of an inner core and a capsule. The inner core is dye and the capsule is gelatin. There are three types of microcapsules: single core type, multi-core type and composite type. The single-core type contains one type of dye, and the multi-core type contains multiple types. Dyes, composite type composite microcapsules composed of multiple layers of outer film. The particles of the microcapsule dye are between 10-30µM

6. Matting printing (imitation jacquard printing)

The water-repellent slurry containing a matting agent on the glossy fabric is applied with a pigment printing process to obtain a partially matte printing effect, with distinct light and shade, and a style similar to jacquard. The matting paste is generally composed of titanium dioxide or paint white as a matting agent and a non-yellowing adhesive. It is mainly used in satin or twill silk, rayon, synthetic fiber, cellulose fiber knitted fabric and blended fabric, and can also be used on calendered fabric and sample paper.

7. Foil Print

After mixing the gold powder or silver powder with a special slurry or adhesive for gold and silver powder with good transparency, it is printed on the fabric to form a golden or silver glittering pattern effect.

8. Shimmer printing

The scintillation sheet is a vacuum aluminized metal sheet, with various colors, 0.008mm-0.1mm in thickness, and high temperature resistance. The printing of the glitter film should be printed with strong adhesion, transparent film formation, and good gloss, without affecting the glittering gloss and special printing paste. It is necessary to ensure that the fabric feels soft and has good fastness to achieve a dazzling effect.

9, imitation peach skin printing

Imitation peach skin printing is to use imported peach skin special pulp (or paint) to achieve the surface feel and appearance of peach skin after printing. The peach skin pulp has strong hiding power, which is more suitable for printing on large areas without exposing the ground and blocking the net. It can be printed on flat and round nets;

10. Imitation leather printing

The imitation leather printing is to use imitation leather pulp and paint to print on the fabric. After drying and baking, the imitation leather feel and appearance are achieved. Leather imitation pulp has good elasticity and hiding power.

11. Color coating printing (gloss printing)

Using the printing method of gloss paste and paint color paste, the fabric is dried and baked, so that the surface of the fabric can be plasticized and coated

12. Photosensitive printing

It uses the principle of absorbing ultraviolet light and converting it into energy to apply photosensitive color-changing materials to printing