As early as more than a century ago, it was hoped that a dye capable of forming a covalent bond with the fiber would be used to improve the wash fastness of the fabric.
It was not until 1954 that Ratie and Stephen of ICI discovered that dichlorotriazinyl-containing dyes were covalently bonded to primary hydroxyl groups on cellulose under alkaline conditions and then strongly dyed on the fibers, with a class of fiber chemistry. Reactivity produces covalent bond reactive dyes, also known as reactive dyes.
The presence of reactive dyes has opened a new page for the development of dyes.
Since the establishment of reactive dyes in 1956, its development has been in a leading position.